Mandarin

Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin and Putonghua, is a standardized variety of Chinese. It is the sole official language of both the People's Republic and the Republic of China; it is also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

The phonology of the standard is based on the Beijing dialect, but its vocabulary is drawn from the large and diverse group of Mandarin dialects spoken across northern, central, and southwestern China. The grammar is standardized to the body of modern literary works that define written vernacular Chinese, the colloquial alternative to Classical Chinese developed around the turn of the 20th century.

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